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Error Handling

When errors/exceptions occur in the system, the API Manager throws JSON-based error responses to the client by default.

To change the format of these error responses, you change the relevant XML file in the <API-M_HOME>/repository/deployment/server/synapse-configs/default/sequences directory. The directory includes multiple XML files, named after the type of errors that occur. You must select the correct file.

WSO2 API Manager has the following default fault sequences located in <API-M_HOME> /repository/deployment/server/synapse-configs/default/sequences directory.

Fault Sequence Description
fault.xml This is the primary fault sequence that gets invoked when an error occurs during the execution of an API resources
main.xml This sequence is called when the endpoint being called does not exist
_auth_failure_handler_.xml This sequence is called when an API authentication error is encountered
_production_key_error_.xml This sequence is called when a Production key is used to invoke an API that does not have a Production endpoint defined
_sandbox_key_error_.xml This sequence is called when a Sandbox key is used to invoke an API that does not have a Sandbox endpoint defined
_throttle_out_handler_.xml This sequence is called when a given request to an API gets throttled out
_token_fault_.xml This sequence is called when there is an error in invoking the token API
_resource_mismatch_handler_.xml This sequence is called when a matching resource cannot be found by the gateway to the corresponding resource being invoked
_cors_request_handler_.xml This sequence enables sending CORS specific headers when the CORS specific configuration ( CORSConfiguration ) is enabled in WSO2 API Manager in the <API-M_HOME>/repository/conf/deployment.toml file.
_threat_fault_.xml This sequence is called to send error messages with regard to threat detection.
dispatchSeq.xml This sequence is defined as a default handler for any inbound WebSocket calls.
outDispatchSeq.xml This sequence is defined to handle any outbound WebSocket calls.


The default sequences can also be customized as shown in the section at the bottom of this page.

Error Codes

Given below are some error codes and their meanings.

API handlers error codes

Error code Error Message Description Example
700700 API blocked This API has been blocked temporarily. Please try again later or contact the system administrators. Invoke an API which is in the BLOCKED lifecycle state
900422 Invalid GraphQL query Syntax of the provided GraphQL query is invalid Invoking a GraphQL API which has a invalid query
900424 Temporary Server Error Server has encountered an error. Please try again. Invoking a protected backend with an invalid Oauth 2.0 backend token.
900800 Message throttled out

The maximum number of requests that can be made to the API within a designated time period is reached and the API is throttled for the user.

Invoke an API exceeding the tier limit
900801 Hard limit exceeded Hard throttle limit has been reached Invoke an API exceeding the hard throttle limit
900802 Resource level throttle out Message is throttled out because resource level has exceeded Sending/Receiving messages beyond authorized resource level
900803 Application level throttle out Message is throttled out because application level is exceeded

Sending/Receiving messages beyond authorized application level

900804 Subscription level throttled out Message throttled out due to subscription level throttling limit reached. Sending/Receiving messages beyond configured throttling limit of subscription level policy.
900805 Message blocked Accessing an API which is blocked on user, IP, application, or API Context. An admin user can block API invocations in real time by user, IP, application, or API context. The API invocation meets the blocked condition.
900806 Custom policy throttled out Message throttled out due to exceeding the limit configured through the custom throttling policy rules. The API invocations meet custom throttle policy rules, exceeding the limits of the configured custom policy.
900807 Message throttled out Messaged throttled out because of exceeding the burst control/rate limit (requests per second) in the subscription level policy. Sending/Receiving messages exceeding the configured burst control/rate limit within second.

Unclassified authentication failure

An unspecified error has occurred Backend service for key validation is not accessible when trying to invoke an API

Invalid credentials

Invalid authentication information provided.


The error code 900904 (Access token inactive) is deprecated from API Manager 1.9.0 onwards. Alternatively, error code 900901 will be sent when the token is inactive.

When the access token is invalid, inactive or expired.

Missing credentials

No authentication information provided Accessing an API without Authorization: Bearer header

Incorrect access token type is provided

The access token type used is not supported when invoking the API. The supported access token types are application and user accesses tokens. See Access Tokens.

Invoke an API with application token, where the resource only allows application user tokens

No matching resource found in the API for the given request

A resource with the name in the request can not be found in the API. Invoke an API resource that is not available

The requested API is temporarily blocked

Happens when the API user is blocked. Invoke API resource with a subscription that has been blocked by the API publisher

Resource forbidden

The user invoking the API has not been granted access to the required resource. Invoke an unsubscribed API

The subscription to the API is inactive

The status of the API has changed to an inaccessible/unavailable state. Invoke an API resource with a subscription that has not yet been approved by the administrator.

The access token does not allow you to access the requested resource

Can not access the required resource with the provided access token. Check the valid resources that can be accessed with this token.

Invoke API resource with an access token that is not generated to be used with the resource's scope.
102511 Incomplete payload The payload sent with the request is too large and the client is unable to keep the connection alive until the payload is completely transferred to the API Gateway Sending a large PDF file with the POST request

Sequences error codes

Error code Description
900901 Production/sandbox key offered to the API with no production/sandbox endpoint
400 Server cannot process the request due to an error in the request sent by the client
403 No matching resource found in the API for the given request

In addition to the above error codes, we have engaged Synapse-level error codes to the default fault sequence and custom fault sequences (e.g., _token_fault_.xml ) of the API Manager. For information, see Error Handling in WSO2 Enterprise Integrator (WSO2 EI) documentation.


The HTTP Status Codes and the corresponding error codes from the error responses are given below.

HTTP Status Code Error Code
400 102511
401 900901, 900902, 900905, 900907, 900909, 900911
403 900906, 900908, 900910
422 900422
429 900800, 900802, 900803, 900804, 900805, 900806, 900807
500 900900
503 700700, 900801

Transport error codes

Error Code Detail
101000 Receiver input/output error sending
101001 Receiver input/output error receiving
101500 Sender input/output error sending
101501 Sender input/output error receiving
101503 Connection failed
101504 Connection timed out (no input was detected on this connection over the maximum period of inactivity)
101505 Connection closed
101506 NHTTP protocol violation
101507 Connection canceled
101508 Request to establish new connection timed out
101509 Send abort
101510 Response processing failed

If the HTTP PassThrough transport is used, and a connection-level error occurs, the error code is calculated using the following equation:

Error code = Base error code + Protocol State

There is a state machine in the transport sender side, where the protocol state changes according to the phase of the message.

Following are the possible protocol states and the description for each:

Protocol State
REQUEST_READY (0) Connection is at the initial stage ready to send a request
REQUEST_HEAD(1) Sending the request headers through the connection
REQUEST_BODY(2) Sending the request body
REQUEST_DONE(3) Request is completely sent
RESPONSE_HEAD(4) The connection is reading the response headers
RESPONSE_BODY(5) The connection is reading the response body
RESPONSE_DONE(6) The response is completed
CLOSING(7) The connection is closing
CLOSED(8) The connection is closed

Since there are several possible protocol states in which a request can time out, you can calculate the error code accordingly using the values in the table above. For example, in a scenario where you send a request and the request is completely sent to the backend, but a timeout happens before the response headers are received, the error code is calculated as follows:

In this scenario, the base error code is CONNECTION_TIMEOUT(101504) and the protocol state is REQUEST_DONE(3).


Error code = 101504 + 3 = 101507

These Transport error codes are used in Advanced Configurations of Endpoints .

Custom error messages

To send a custom message with a custom HTTP status code, you execute an additional sequence that can generate a new error message. You then override the message body, HTTP status code and other values.

The following steps demonstrate how to override a throttled-out message's HTTP status code as a custom error message:

  1. Start the WSO2 API Manager.

  2. Go to <API-M_HOME>/repository/deployment/server/synapse-configs/default/sequences directory and create the file convert.xml as follows.

    <sequence xmlns="" name="convert">
        <payloadFactory media-type="xml">
                <am:fault xmlns:am="">
                    <am:type>Status report</am:type>
                    <am:message>Runtime Error</am:message>
                <arg evaluator="xml" expression="$ctx:ERROR_CODE"/>
                <arg evaluator="xml" expression="$ctx:ERROR_MESSAGE"/>
        <property name="RESPONSE" value="true"/>
        <header name="To" action="remove"/>
        <property name="HTTP_SC" value="555" scope="axis2"/>
       <property name="NO_ENTITY_BODY" scope="axis2" action="remove"/>
       <property name="ContentType" scope="axis2" action="remove"/>
       <property name="Authorization" scope="transport" action="remove"/>
       <property name="Access-Control-Allow-Origin" value="*" scope="transport"/>
       <property name="Host" scope="transport" action="remove"/>
       <property name="Accept" scope="transport" action="remove"/>
       <property name="X-JWT-Assertion" scope="transport" action="remove"/>
       <property name="messageType" value="application/json" scope="axis2"/>


    Alternatively, you can use the Source View of the API-M Management Console as follows to edit the synapse configuration:

    1. Sign in to the Management Console.(https://<Server Host>:9443/carbon).
    2. Go to Manager and then Source View.
    3. Copy the content of the sequence in convert.xml, paste it as a new sequence in the source view and update it.
  3. Check the terminal logs to see whether there are issues in the deployment.
    If the deployment is successful, you see a message similar to the following in the system logs:

     INFO - DependencyTracker Sequence : convert was added to the Synapse configuration successfully
     INFO - SequenceDeployer Sequence named 'convert' has been deployed from file : <API-M_HOME>/repository/deployment/server/synapse-configs/default/sequences/convert.xml
  4. Include the sequence that you just deployed in a sequence of your choice. For this example, let's add this custom sequence in the _auth_failure_handler_ sequence.

     <sequence name="_auth_failure_handler_" xmlns="">
         <sequence key="convert"/>
  5. Check the terminal and see whether there are any errors with the _auth_failure_handler_ sequence deployment.
    If the deployment is successful, you see a message similar to the following in the system logs:

      INFO - DependencyTracker Sequence : _auth_failure_handler_ was added to the Synapse configuration successfully
      INFO - SequenceDeployer Sequence: _auth_failure_handler_ has been updated from the file: <API-M_HOME>/repository/deployment/server/synapse-configs/default/sequences/_auth_failure_handler_.xml
  6. Invoke the API with the respective criteria in order to trigger the sequence.
    In this example, let's view the menu on the PizzaShack API and invoke the API with an incorrect token.

    curl -v -H "Authorization: Bearer <Access_Token>" http://localhost:8280/<API_name>/<version>/<context>     
    curl -k -v -X GET "https://localhost:8243/pizzashack/1.0.0/menu" -H "accept: application/json" -H "Authorization: Bearer fb119e84-9542-3194-93dc-1ddddaaa1111"     
    > GET /pizzashack/1.0.0/menu HTTP/1.1
    > Host: localhost:8243
    > User-Agent: curl/7.54.0
    > accept: application/json
    > Authorization: Bearer fb119e84-9542-3194-93dc-1ddddaaa1111
    < HTTP/1.1 555 
    < Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *
    < Access-Control-Allow-Methods: GET
    < Access-Control-Allow-Headers: authorization,Access-Control-Allow-Origin,Content-Type,SOAPAction
    < Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
    < Date: Fri, 04 Jan 2019 09:53:56 GMT
    < Transfer-Encoding: chunked
    {"fault":{"code":900901,"type":"Status report","message":"Runtime Error","description":"Invalid Credentials"}}